The presented publication introduces an essential characteristics of the social security system in the Slovak republic (concept, characteristics of its components, sources of law, social security legal relationship) Thematically, the publication provides information on the insurance system, the state social support system and the social assistance system. The reader receives an overview on internal relations (particularly the insurance and benefits relationships) and about the functioning of the insurance system, the purpose of state social benefits provided by the state social support system and solution of the social deprivation and material need of an individual with tools, benefits and services of the social assistance system. The most extensive part is the insurance system as it ensures the widest range of social rights of individuals. This publication does not present only a basic orientation in the social security system, but also provides the expertise for application practise. The publication thus becomes interesting not only for students but also for laymen who want to gain the insight and guidance in the social security legal relations carried out according to the legal order of the Slovak republic.